Marketplace has launched, further enabling blockchain developers! Learn more

How to Send a Transaction On Solana Using JavaScript

September 23, 2022

Introduction

Hello reader! Today is an exhilarating day because we are going on an expedition to the Solana Blockchain. Solana is an up-and-coming blockchain seeking to improve upon the current ecosystem's solutions to the complex problem of providing a secure, scalable, decentralized consensus protocol. Solana has a myriad of technologies that it is employing to garner some market share from its big brother Ethereum. In this guide, you will learn how to connect to Solana, obtain funds on its devnet, and send a transaction with this new and exciting technology.

Prerequisites:
  • Nodejs installed on your system.
  • Familiarity with the command-line/terminal.
  • A text editor to write code in.

Setting Up the Project

You need to set up your project before you start slinging Solana transactions like a penny stock day trader! To start, create a directory. We will be naming it SolanaTransaction in this guide, but feel free to name it whatever you like. After we make the new project folder, we will need a file where we write our code. Again, you can call it anything so long as it ends with the .js suffix, but we will call ours sendSol.js. Enter the following commands in your console to proceed.

setting up the project

Copy
mkdir SolanaTransaction
cd SolanaTransaction
touch sendSol.js
With that out of the way, crack open the sendSol.js file with your favorite text editor.

Getting a Solana Node

While this goal could be accomplished by any node connection on the Solana network, here at QuickNode, we make it quick and easy to set up a Solana node.

You can register for whatever plan best suits your needs and then make sure to launch your node under the Solana Devnet.

You can register for a free trial, as well as see pricing here

You will need the HTTPS provider for this tutorial. It should look something like this:

Screenshot of Quicknode Solana endpoint


Connecting to Solana

To connect to the devnet that Solana offers we will need to install the @solana/web3.js library. To do so run the following command.

connecting to solana

Copy
npm i @solana/web3.js
With the Solana's JavaScript library installed, we can now conenct to the network.

connecting to solana

Copy
//sendSol.js
const web3 =  require("@solana/web3.js");

(async () => {
  const web3 =  require("@solana/web3.js");

  // Connect to cluster
  const connection = new web3.Connection(
    "<YOUR_QUICKNODE_URL_HERE>",
    'confirmed',
  );
  // console.log(connection) Uncomment this to test if your connection is working
})
A quick breakdown of the code:

  • Line 2: importing the solana/web3.js library.
  • Line 4: Calling an async lambda function that will execute all of the code when we run our script.
  • line 5-8: Making a new connection object. The constructor for connection takes a string representation of an endpoint URL, and a commitment level. In our case we're calling the clusterApiUrl() function which will return the current live endpoint to the Solana Devnet.
With the connection constant configured, you will now be able to make calls to the Solana Network. If you'd like to test out if your connection is working, you can uncomment the line at the bottom to log the connection object.

Generating the Addresses and Funds

With a connection to the network, we will need to get the tools to generate the addresses and get funds for the network. We can do that with the following call. Place this bit of code below the connection, but inside the lambda function.

generating the addresses and funds

Copy
//sendSol.js
const from = web3.Keypair.generate();
  const airdropSignature = await connection.requestAirdrop(
    from.publicKey,
    web3.LAMPORTS_PER_SOL, // 10000000 Lamports in 1 SOL
  );
  await connection.confirmTransaction(airdropSignature);

  // Generate a new random public key
  const to = web3.Keypair.generate();
Walking through this bit of code:

  • Line 2: Creating a new keypair that we will send funds from.
  • Line 3-6: Requesting an airdrop for funds. Instead of going to a faucet like you would on Ethereum, Solana has this functionality baked in to its devnet. This will send 1 SOL (web3.LAMPORTS_PER_SOL) to the address (from.publicKey) that you pass in.
  • Line 7: confirming the transaction using our connection's method confirmTransaction.
  • Line 10: Creating a new keypair that we will send funds to.


Having done all of those previous steps, you should now have:

  1. A connection to the Solana Network.
  2. An account with funds to send SOL from.
  3. An account address to send SOL to.

As it turns out, with all of those components you are now able to complete a transaction!

Sending the Transaction

On to the fun bit! We can now send a transaction on the network. There are two parts to this process. First, we need to create a new transaction object. Second, we have to send that transaction to another user and add our signature to it. The following block of code will show us exactly how to do that.

sending the transaction

Copy
const transaction = new web3.Transaction().add(
    web3.SystemProgram.transfer({
      fromPubkey: from.publicKey,
      toPubkey: to.publicKey,
      lamports: web3.LAMPORTS_PER_SOL / 100,
    }),
  );

  // Sign transaction, broadcast, and confirm
  const signature = await web3.sendAndConfirmTransaction(
    connection,
    transaction,
    [from],
  );
  console.log('SIGNATURE', signature);


Creating the Transaction


Here you can see each of the previous steps has its own function. We can start with the first function web3.Transaction().add(web3.SystemProgram.transfer({})). That is quite verbose, and needs to be broken down into smaller parts to be fully understood.

  1. web3.Transaction() - creates the empty Transaction object.
  2. add() - Provides a method where we can add instructions to the Transaction object.
  3. web3.SystemProgram.transfer() - This is the method responsible for sending the funds from one account to another. It takes several arguments. This represents lines 2-6 of our first function that we store in the transaction constant.

Parameters:
  1. fromPubkey - The public key of the account that we are sending funds from.
  2. toPubkey - The public key of the account that is receiving funds from the transaction.
  3. lamports: - The amount of lamports to send. You can think of lamports are to Sol, what gwei are to Ether.

Signing the Transaction


With the transaction object ready to go, we now need to authorize the transaction by signing it with our secret key. The 2nd function in the code block above is responsible for this step in the process. We can break that down to get a better understanding of what is going on.

  • Line 10: Declaring the signature constant, which will store the result from sendAndConfirmTransaction()
  • Line 11-13: providing the arguments to the previously mentioned function. In order, the arguments are the connection object, the transaction to send, and the sender's private/public keypair represented by an array. 
  • Line 15: Logging the successful signature, which is represented by a transaction hash.

With all of that done, you are now ready to run your code. I will add a final code snippet here which should be what your finished project looks like.

sending the transaction

Copy
const web3 =  require("@solana/web3.js");

(async () => {
  // Connect to cluster
  console.log(web3.clusterApiUrl('devnet'))
  const connection = new web3.Connection(
    web3.clusterApiUrl('devnet'),
    'confirmed',
  );
  // Uncomment the below command to test your connection to your node
  //console.log(await connection.getEpochInfo())

  // Generate a new random public key
  const from = web3.Keypair.generate();
  const airdropSignature = await connection.requestAirdrop(
    from.publicKey,
    web3.LAMPORTS_PER_SOL,
  );
  await connection.confirmTransaction(airdropSignature);

  // Generate a new random public key
  const to = web3.Keypair.generate();

  // Add transfer instruction to transaction
  const transaction = new web3.Transaction().add(
    web3.SystemProgram.transfer({
      fromPubkey: from.publicKey,
      toPubkey: to.publicKey,
      lamports: web3.LAMPORTS_PER_SOL / 100,
    }),
  );

  // Sign transaction, broadcast, and confirm
  const signature = await web3.sendAndConfirmTransaction(
    connection,
    transaction,
    [from],
  );
  console.log('SIGNATURE', signature);
})();
You can now run the sendSol.js file in your terminal and get an output similar to this!

node sendSol output

Conclusion

Congratulations! If you made it to this part you have now successfully sent a transaction on the Solana Network. Solana is a very interesting blockchain, that seemingly makes improvments upon the Ethereum Network in terms of UX. The transactions happen faster, and fees are lower. Solana has not been battle tested quite like Ethereum has, but it is certainly worth keeping an eye out on. And more importantly, you are already ahead of the curve! There aren't many that can say that they have sent a transaction on Solana using JavaScript, but you can!

Subscribe to our newsletter for more articles and guides on Ethereum. If you have any feedback, feel free to reach out to us via Twitter. You can always chat with us on our Discord community server, featuring some of the coolest developers you’ll ever meet :)

Related articles 26

How to Use the Solana Memo Program
Originally Published On: Sep 16, 2022
Updated On: Sep 23, 2022

Tools like Create a new project directory... Import Necessary... To send a memo transaction, we... Now, how can we fetch that memo... You may have noticed in creating... Transaction memos can be a handy...

Continue reading
How to Transfer SPL Tokens on Solana
Originally Published On: Sep 23, 2022
Updated On: Sep 23, 2022

Sending Solana Program Library... Before getting started, it is... Create a new project directory... Import Necessary... If you have created a fungible... Create a new async function,... Finally, at the end of your... Awesome! You now know how to...

Continue reading
How to Send Bulk Transactions on Solana
Originally Published On: Aug 31, 2022
Updated On: Sep 23, 2022

Are you running a batch process... Create a new project directory... Let's start by creating a list... Import Necessary... If you're new to Solana or web3,... Alright! You have an array of... Let's call our functions and... So, our simple example above... Congrats! You just sent SOL to...

Continue reading
How to Query Solana Naming Service Domains (.sol)
Originally Published On: Aug 19, 2022
Updated On: Sep 23, 2022

In a recent guide, we covered To run our on-chain queries,... To build on Solana, you'll need... Let's start by creating a new... Create a new function below... Let's declare our search queries... You now have the tools to run...

Continue reading
How to Deploy an NFT Collection on Solana Using Sugar (Candy Machine)
Originally Published On: Jul 28, 2022
Updated On: Sep 23, 2022

Are you ready to launch your NFT... Create a new project directory... Mac... One of the cool new features of... Next, we will want to fund our... If you have used Candy Machine... Create a new file,... Because we've set our RPC and... For the easiest possible set up,... Congrats! You created a Candy...

Continue reading
How to Mint an NFT on Solana
Originally Published On: Aug 27, 2021
Updated On: Sep 23, 2022

Updated at: April 10,... Solana's goal is singular in... Open Terminal and navigate to a... Open the... The first task we'll need to... We'll now need to create a new... We have an account to send the... Now it's time to mint an NFT and... If you made it this far, you...

Continue reading
How to Mint an NFT on Solana Using Candy Machine
Originally Published On: Sep 20, 2021
Updated On: Sep 23, 2022

NOTE:... Hello reader! We have had a lot... Candy Machine is a tool that... There are two different... With all of the code pulled down... With everything in place there... Congratulations! You just minted...

Continue reading
Como crear un NFT en SOLANA
Originally Published On: Dec 27, 2021
Updated On: Sep 23, 2022

¡Hola querido lector!... Solana tiene un objetivo muy... Nosotros usaremos Solana Devnet... Esta es la parte divertida! La... Si has llegado hasta aquí, has...

Continue reading
How to Create Websocket Subscriptions to Solana Blockchain using Typescript
Originally Published On: Jul 15, 2022
Updated On: Sep 23, 2022

Creating event listeners is an... Create a new project directory... To build on Solana, you'll need... On line 5, create a new... To track a wallet on Solana,... This code is ready to run as is,... Let's go ahead and test it... Solana has created a built-in... Solana has several other,... Nice work! Now you should have a...

Continue reading
An Introduction to the Solana Account Model
Originally Published On: Apr 18, 2022
Updated On: Sep 23, 2022

The Accounts are any place where... There are two types of accounts... Unfortunately, storing all this... To create an account on Solana,... Since the program code and data... Creating and interacting with...

Continue reading
How to Get Transaction Logs on Solana
Originally Published On: Jun 24, 2022
Updated On: Sep 23, 2022

Ever need to pull all the... Create a new project directory... To build on Solana, you'll need... The... If everything is set up... So we've got some useful basic... Kudos! You've now got an inside...

Continue reading
How to Deploy an NFT on Solana Using Candy Machine V2
Originally Published On: Jan 15, 2022
Updated On: Sep 23, 2022

Candy Machine 2 has been... Hello readers, in this guide we... Now, let us begin the... If you have used CMv1 or... With all of our assets loaded... For the easiest possible set up,... Congratulations on successfully...

Continue reading
Como crear un NFT en Solana usando Candy Machine
Originally Published On: Dec 27, 2021
Updated On: Sep 23, 2022

¡Hola querido lector! Hemos... Candy Machine es un programa que... Hay dos repositorios diferentes... Una vez que el código se ha... Con todo lo que hemos realizado... ¡Felicidades! Acabas de hacer...

Continue reading
How to Build a Wallet Generator for Solana in React
Originally Published On: Oct 27, 2021
Updated On: Sep 23, 2022

In this practical guide you will... We have prepared a small... Connection to Solana Network is... To create an account we will... To get the balance of an account... As we said before, in... Congratulations on making it to...

Continue reading