Solana Transaction Propagation: Handling Dropped Transactions

May 31, 2022

Overview

Hello readers! We know Solana network congestion can sometimes throw a wrench in your transactions. Occasionally, when Solana is congested, transactions get dropped, meaning your sendTransaction request may return a valid Transaction ID, but the response returns null
Solana Explorer Example of Transaction Not Found

If you do not adequately safeguard for this scenario, you risk telling your user that a transaction has been confirmed even though it has failed. In this guide, we will walk through the steps required to ensure that your transactions are finalized or that the blockhash has expired, so you can retry the transaction.

What You Will Need

* Nodejs (version 16.15 or higher)
* Experience with basic transactions on Solana. Read our guide on how to send a transaction on Solana for more information. 
* Knowledge of Javascript

Set Up Your Environment

Create a new project directory and file, index.js, in your terminal with: 

mkdir project_name
cd project_name echo > index.js 

Install Solana Web3 dependencies: 

yarn init
yarn add @solana/web3.js

or 

npm init
npm install --save @solana/web3.js

Open index.js in a code editor of choice and on line 1, import Connection, LAMPORTS_PER_SOL, and PublicKey from the Solana web3 library: 

set up your environment

Copy
import {Connection, PublicKey, LAMPORTS_PER_SOL } from '@solana/web3.js';

Make sure to add "type": "module" to your package.json to allow imports.

Build a Sample Transaction

In this example, we will use requestAirdrop, but you can use sendTransaction or any other method that returns a Promise<TransactionSignature>.

Establish a connection to your RPC.


While this goal could be accomplished by any node connection on the Solana network, here at QuickNode, we make it quick and easy to set up a Solana node.
You can register for a free trial, as well as see pricing here.
Make sure to launch your node under the Solana Devnet and copy the HTTP link:
New Solana Devnet Node
Navigate back to the index.js file and establish a connection to Solana Devnet with the following constants:

build a sample transaction

Copy
const solanaDevnet = 'https://example.solana-devnet.quiknode.pro/000000/';
const solanaConnection = new Connection(solanaDevnet);

Define a public key to airdrop tokens to: 

build a sample transaction

Copy
const toDropPublicKey = new PublicKey('YOUR_PUBLIC_KEY');

Establish timeout and iteration variables. For this exercise, we will check if a transaction's status every statusCheckInterval (ms) for a period of timeout (ms) (As of this writing, the transaction's blockhash will expire after 150 blocks or ~1 minute and 19 seconds.). Additionally, we will define a sleep function to control our loop timing and declare a boolean, isBlockhashValid, which we will use later. 

build a sample transaction

Copy
const statusCheckInterval = 300;
const timeout = 90000; 
let isBlockhashValid = true;
const sleep = (ms) => {
    return new Promise(resolve => setTimeout(resolve, ms));
}


Create a Transaction and define your initialBlock by calling await solanaConnection.getSignatureStatus(txId)).context.slot (Note: even dropped transactions should include this context)

build a sample transaction

Copy
(async()=>{
    const airdropSignature = solanaConnection.requestAirdrop(
        toDropPublicKey,
        LAMPORTS_PER_SOL, //Airdrop 1 SOL
    );    const txId = await airdropSignature;
    const inititalBlock = (await solanaConnection.getSignatureStatus(txId)).context.slot
})()

Set a Timeout

Inside your async function, declare a boolean variable, done, and set a timeout to run after timeout has expired. 

set a timeout

Copy
    let done = false;
    setTimeout(() => {
        if (done) {
          return;
        }
        done = true;
        console.log('Timed out for txid', txId);
        //notify user of timeout or attempt retry
      }, timeout);

Create the getSignatureStatus Loop

After your timeout, call getSignatureStatus on the returned txId until it returns a status of confirmed or finalized to ensure that we do not end up using a null Transaction ID that the Solana network dropped. 

create the getsignaturestatus loop

Copy
    while (!done && isBlockhashValid) {
        //check the transaction signature status
        const confirmation = await solanaConnection.getSignatureStatus(txId);

        //if the transaction is found and confirmed or finalized, end the loop
        if (
            confirmation.value
            && ((confirmation.value.confirmationStatus === 'confirmed')
                || (confirmation.value.confirmationStatus === 'finalized'))
        )
        {
            console.log(`Confirmation Status: ${confirmation.value.confirmationStatus}`, txId)
            done = true;
            //Run any additional code you'd like with your txId (e.g. notify user of succesful transaction)
        }
        else {
            console.log(`Confirmation Status: ${confirmation.value?.confirmationStatus || 'not yet found.'}`);
        }
        //wait for the interval period before checking again
        await sleep(statusCheckInterval);
    }

Check that the Blockhash has Expired

Finally, if the transaction times out, create a isBlockhashExpired function to check whether it is safe to retry the transaction.

check that the blockhash has expired

Copy
async function isBlockhashExpired(initialBlockHeight) {
    let currentBlockHeight = (await solanaConnection.getBlockHeight());
    console.log(currentBlockHeight);
    return (currentBlockHeight > initialBlockHeight);
}

Inside the while loop, call isBlockhashExpired to update isBlockhashValid.

check that the blockhash has expired

Copy
        isBlockhashValid = !(await isBlockhashExpired(inititalBlock));
        await sleep(statusCheckInterval);
 
Update your timeout to perform desired actions dependent on the validity of the blockhash: 

check that the blockhash has expired

Copy
    let done = false;
    setTimeout(() => {
        if (done) {
          return;
        }
        done = true;
        console.log('Timed out for txid', txId);
        console.log(`${isBlockhashValid ? 'Blockhash not yet expired.' : 'Blockhash has expired.' }`)
        //notify user of timeout or attempt retry
      }, timeout);

Run Your Code!

Your final script should look like this: 

run your code

Copy
import {Connection, PublicKey, LAMPORTS_PER_SOL } from '@solana/web3.js';

const solanaDevnet = 'https://example.solana-devnet.quiknode.pro/000000/';
const solanaConnection = new Connection(solanaDevnet);
const toDropPublicKey = new PublicKey('YOUR_PUBLIC_KEY');

const statusCheckInterval = 300;
const timeout = 90000;
let isBlockhashValid = true;
const sleep = (ms) => {
    return new Promise(resolve => setTimeout(resolve, ms));
}
async function isBlockhashExpired(initialBlockHeight) {
    let currentBlockHeight = (await solanaConnection.getBlockHeight());
    console.log(currentBlockHeight);
    return (currentBlockHeight > initialBlockHeight);
}

(async()=>{

    const airdropSignature = solanaConnection.requestAirdrop(
        toDropPublicKey,
        LAMPORTS_PER_SOL,
    );
    const txId = await airdropSignature;
    const inititalBlock = (await solanaConnection.getSignatureStatus(txId)).context.slot;
    let done = false;
    setTimeout(() => {
        if (done) {
          return;
        }
        done = true;
        console.log('Timed out for txid', txId);
        console.log(`${isBlockhashValid ? 'Blockhash not yet expired.' : 'Blockhash has expired.' }`)
    }, timeout);

    while (!done && isBlockhashValid) {
        const confirmation = await solanaConnection.getSignatureStatus(txId);

        if (confirmation.value && ((confirmation.value.confirmationStatus === 'confirmed') || (confirmation.value.confirmationStatus === 'finalized'))) {
            console.log(`Confirmation Status: ${confirmation.value.confirmationStatus}`, txId)
            done = true;
            //Run any additional code you'd like with your txId (e.g. notify user of succesful transaction)
        }
        else {
            console.log(`Confirmation Status: ${confirmation.value?.confirmationStatus || 'not yet found.'}`);
        }
        isBlockhashValid =  !(await isBlockhashExpired(inititalBlock));
        await sleep(statusCheckInterval);
    }

})()

Enter node index.js from your project directory to run your code!

Tip: Use a Solana Node with QuickNode

Some data-intensive queries on Solana may cause an RPC node to fall behind. If you are doing many queries like getProgramAccounts, fetching large amounts of NFT metadata, or performing time-sensitive transactions, you might consider using the QuickNode Solana node you set up earlier. Our high-performing infrastructure distributes your load among hundreds of nodes for optimal performance.

Conclusion

That's it! You're now on your way to providing a better experience for your users. As the Solana ecosystem continues to mature, expect processes around transaction handling to evolve. To put these concepts into practice, check out some of our other Solana tutorials here.

Subscribe to our newsletter for more articles and guides on Solana. Feel free to reach out to us via Twitter if you have any feedback. You can always chat with us on our Discord community server, featuring some of the coolest developers you'll ever meet :)

Related articles 54

How to Send a Transaction On Solana Using JavaScript
Apr 13, 2022

Hello reader! Today is an exhilarating day because we are going on an expedition to the Solana Blockchain. Solana is an up-and-coming blockchain seeking to improve upon the current ecosystem's solutions to the complex problem of providing a secure, scalable, decentralized...

Continue reading
How to do a non-custodial transaction with QuickNode
Apr 12, 2022

Private keys are one of the most sensitive pieces of data when it comes to cryptography and the blockchain. However, there has always been debate/confusion about choosing between custodial wallets (where the wallet provider has custody of the user’s private key) and...

Continue reading
How to connect to Ethereum using .NET (Nethereum)
Apr 12, 2022

Dotnet or .NET is very popular for the development of desktop applications, most Windows desktop applications are built using .NET, and it also contributes largely to web application’s tech stack. In this guide, let’s see how we can connect to Ethereum using .NET and

Continue reading
How to Set Up a Near Project from Scratch
Jan 27, 2022

In this tutorial we will look at how we can setup a basic NEAR project from scratch, installing and configuring dependencies and customizing the project to work well with AssemblyScript.We will first start by initializing our project with a package.json file using...

Continue reading
Como crear y lanzar un ERC-721 (NFT)
Dec 29, 2021

Coleccionables digitales que son compatibles con ERC-721 se han vuelto muy populares desde el lanzamiento de Cryptokitties y han ganado adopción masiva en los últimos meses. Esta guía cubrirá la parte de creación y lanzamiento...

Continue reading
How to connect to Ethereum network using Java / Web3j
Apr 12, 2022

We can say that Java is one of the most versatile languages out there, and it continues to be relevant in today's time. Java is so popular because of its massive user base and use cases. In this guide/tutorial, we'll learn how to connect to the Ethereum Blockchain network...

Continue reading
How to integrate IPFS with Ethereum
Apr 12, 2022

It can be costly to store massive files on a blockchain mainnet, and this is where decentralized file storing systems like IPFS can come in handy. Sometimes, NFTs use IPFS as well. In this guide, we’ll cover how we can integrate IPFS with...

Continue reading
How to Connect to the Ethereum Network using Ruby
Jun 13, 2022

The Ruby programming language has a huge fanbase. Ruby was developed by its creator with an intention to invent a language developers can enjoy learning and using. Ruby has been largely accepted by developers all around the world since its launch, in fact, the biggest...

Continue reading
How to connect to Ethereum network with ethers.js
Apr 12, 2022

When someone thinks of developing a dApp the first tool that comes to their mind is web3.js which is pretty common because of its popularity in the community and wide use cases, dApp development has been consistently growing and there are a lot of developers who want to...

Continue reading
How to Mint an NFT on Solana
Apr 12, 2022

Updated at: April 10, 2022Welcome to another QuickNode guide on Solana - the up-and-coming blockchain that seeks to solve the scalability issues of Ethereum. We will be walking through step-by-step how to create an NFT on Solana. NFT, short for Non Fungible Token,...

Continue reading
The Web3 Developer Stack
Apr 12, 2022

A developer stack is a bag of technologies a developer possesses. For example, MEAN (MongoDB, Express.js, AngularJS/Angular, and Node.js) and MERN (MongoDB, Express.js, React, and Node.js) are common web developer stacks. Similarly, today we will learn more about the web3...

Continue reading
How to deploy a smart contract with Brownie
Apr 12, 2022

Python is one of the most versatile programming languages; from researchers running their test models to developers using it in heavy production environments, it has use cases in every possible technical field. In today's guide, we will learn about Brownie, a Python-based...

Continue reading
How to Get All Tokens Held by a Wallet in Solana
Jun 24, 2022

Hello readers! To kick off Solana Summer and the current whitelist meta, we thought it would be helpful to dig into all of the token accounts you and your users have using the getParsedProgramAccounts method. This tool is convenient for querying different...

Continue reading
Introduction to Scaffold-ETH 🏗
Dec 29, 2021

Developing applications involves juggling several moving pieces like front-ends, back-ends, and databases. But developing a decentralized application on a blockchain adds a few more elements like smart contracts and nodes that allow you to connect to the...

Continue reading
Como crear un NFT en SOLANA
Dec 29, 2021

¡Hola querido lector! Bienvenidos a una nueva guía de Solana.Solana es una blockchain que promete mucho a la hora de intentar resolver los problemas de escalabilidad que podemos apreciar en otras blockchains, como Ethereum por...

Continue reading
How to Get Transaction Logs on Solana
Jun 28, 2022

Ever need to pull all the transactions associated with a Wallet? Want to see all of the mint transactions associated with a Candy Machine? Or maybe see transaction history of an NFT? Solana's getSignaturesForAddress method is a versatile tool that makes...

Continue reading
How to Send an EIP-1559 Transaction
Apr 12, 2022

While Ethereum has been trying to scale, it has encountered some gas price issues. Many layer 2 solutions and sidechains sprang into existence to solve this problem, but Ethereum is the main chain, and at some point, it has to be improved. EIP-1559 was introduced to...

Continue reading
How to Create an Address in Solana using JavaScript
Apr 12, 2022

Hello reader! Welcome to QuickNode's first Solana guide. Solana is an up-and-coming blockchain that seeks to solve the scalability issues that Ethereum has been handling. You will walk through step-by-step how to create a Solana address using the @solana/web3.js...

Continue reading
How to create your own DAO with Aragon
Apr 12, 2022

Blockchain provides us with the power of decentralization. Decentralization means the transfer of power to users/members rather than having a single centralized authority governing everything; it enables various use cases in finance, governance, voting, fundraising, etc....

Continue reading
How to Connect to Terra with JavaScript using Terra.js
Apr 12, 2022

Stablecoins have been bridging the gap between traditional currencies and blockchains. Stablecoins offer stable price tokens pegged by a reserve asset which is often a fiat current like USD, EUR, GBP. The Terra protocol provides a framework to work with stablecoins. This...

Continue reading
How to connect to Ethereum network using Go
Apr 12, 2022

Go helps you make faster scalable backends and this guide will show you how to connect your backend to Ethereum (and make it even faster, more reliable, and globally accessible, all thanks to QuickNode’s global infrastructure). What is...

Continue reading
How To Fork Ethereum Mainnet with Hardhat
Apr 12, 2022

Forking the chain at an older block of the blockchain is helpful if you want to simulate the blockchain’s state at that block; Hardhat has this functionality built in. In this guide, let’s go through the process of forking the Ethereum Mainnet at an older...

Continue reading
How to connect to Ethereum using PHP
Apr 12, 2022

PHP is a very popular choice among developers and has a vast community due to its long presence in web development. In this guide, we’ll cover how to connect to Ethereum with PHP using the web3.php...

Continue reading
How to use Subspace with QuickNode
Apr 12, 2022

In this guide, we'll understand a bit about reactive development and how to use Subspace with QuickNode.JavaScript is the programming language behind most of the internet apps and websites. JavaScript today has become one of the most used programming languages,...

Continue reading
How to Connect Your Dapp With MetaMask Using Ethers.js
Dec 29, 2021

In our dApp, we will have a simple react user interface that has a material button asking the user to connect to MetaMask. And if they do not have an account, they can create one or log in to their account. They will then view their wallet balance and address displayed on...

Continue reading
How to generate a new Ethereum address in Go
Dec 29, 2021

Golang is very popular among backend developers for building infrastructures and microservices. Go is a procedural programming language. Developed in 2007 by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, and Ken Thompson at Google, then launched in 2009 as...

Continue reading
How to generate a new Ethereum address in Python
Dec 29, 2021

Python is one of the most versatile programming languages out there with an abundance of use cases; We can build many applications with Python from client-side to back end. In this guide, we will cover creating an Ethereum address in Python using the

Continue reading
How to Lazy Mint an NFT on Rarible with Rarepress
Apr 12, 2022

NFTs are great for creators to monetize their artwork and for people to get ownership of an item. But since gas prices are usually high given the highly in-demand space on Ethereum, minting an NFT or an NFT collection can become costly for a creator. Lazy minting solves...

Continue reading