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Transaction Calldata Demystified - A Guide to Understanding Transaction Calldata on Ethereum

Updated on
Feb 28, 2023

Transaction Calldata Demystified - A Guide to Understanding Transaction Calldata on Ethereum

4 min read

Overview

If you’ve interacted with smart contracts on Ethereum before, you might have noticed that your transaction includes a long hexadecimal value in its data field. As a user (or developer), you may want to understand these values better. This guide will cover exactly that - you will learn how to decode transaction calldata so you can better comprehend other transactions you come across. By the end of the guide, you’ll also learn how to encode and decode programmatically with Web3.py and Python.

What You Will Need

What You Will Do

  • Learn about encoding and decoding transaction calldata
  • Create an Ethereum endpoint (Sign up for a free account here)
  • Use Web3.py to encode and decode transaction calldata

What is Transaction Calldata?

Transaction calldata is the data passed along with a transaction that allows us to send messages to other entities or interact with smart contracts.

How does transaction calldata look? Here's a transaction on Ethereum that is for a transfer of DAI, which includes calldata (i.e., the Input Data field)

Etherscan

Source: Etherscan

Etherscan formats this calldata for us so it's simpler to understand. However, the actual raw transaction calldata would look like:

0xa9059cbb0000000000000000000000003f5047bdb647dc39c88625e17bdbffee905a9f4400000000000000000000000000000000000000000000011c9a62d04ed0c80000

You're probably wondering what those hexadecimal values represent. Well, don't worry. By the end of this guide, you will know exactly how to decypher transaction calldata on Ethereum (and other EVM-based chains)!

Decoding Calldata

Before decoding the calldata above, let's recap some fundamental rules.

  • Calldata is a bytes array that can be variable in length (but limited by the block gas limit)
  • Calldata can contain data represented in a static or dynamic format

Some examples of static calldata are types like addresses, uint's, bytes32, and bool, which are a fixed length.

  • addresses: 20 bytes or 40 characters in length
  • uint256: 32 bytes or 64 characters in length)
  • bytes32: byte array of fixed size, 32 bytes (i.e., 64 characters long)
  • bool: 1 byte or 1 character in length

Whereas dynamic variables such as bytes and int[], etc. are non-fixed in length. With those concepts in mind, let us try to decode the transaction calldata from above.

The function being called in the referenced transaction is the transfer function which is defined as transfer(address dst, uint256 wad). Again, the raw calldata consists of:

0xa9059cbb0000000000000000000000003f5047bdb647dc39c88625e17bdbffee905a9f4400000000000000000000000000000000000000000000011c9a62d04ed0c80000

Let's break it down.

  • The first part of the calldata 0x lets us know that the value is hexadecimal
  • The next four bytes are a9059cbb, which refer to the function selector that is created by taking the first 4 bytes of the sha3 hash of the function name and its input types. This is used to identify the function that is being called. Check out the ABI spec.
  • The next set of bytes are 0000000000000000000000003f5047bdb647dc39c88625e17bdbffee905a9f44 which is 64 characters in length and represents the address dst input. The 000000000000000000000000 refers to the padding used to ensure the value takes up the same amount of memory. The remaining bytes refer to the recipient address 3f5047bdb647dc39c88625e17bdbffee905a9f44.
  • The next set of bytes are 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000011c9a62d04ed0c80000 which refer to the uint256 wad input. We should expect this to be 32 bytes (or 64 characters in length). The 000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 is the padding, and the remaining 11c9a62d04ed0c8 refer to the amount in Wei value, which, when converted and divided by 18 decimal places, amounts to 5250. The remaining 0000 is trailing zeroes that ensure the data is always 32 bytes long.

Decoding Calldata with Python

Before we get started, we'll need access to an Ethereum node. You're welcome to use public nodes or deploy and manage your own infrastructure; however, if you'd like 8x faster response times, you can leave the heavy lifting to us. Sign up for a free account here.

Once signed in, click Create Endpoint and select the Ethereum Mainnet chain.

QuickNode Endpoint

Once your endpoint is created, keep the HTTP Provider URL handy, as you'll need it in the Python script.

Now, in Python you can use the Web3.py library and the following code to decode the same calldata:

from web3 import Web3

# The RPC URL
w3 = Web3(Web3.HTTPProvider("QUICKNODE_ETHEREUM_ENDPOINT"))

# The DAI contract address
contract_address = '0x6B175474E89094C44Da98b954EedeAC495271d0F'

# The DAI contract ABI
abi = '[{"inputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"chainId_","type":"uint256"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"constructor"},{"anonymous":false,"inputs":[{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"src","type":"address"},{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"guy","type":"address"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"Approval","type":"event"},{"anonymous":true,"inputs":[{"indexed":true,"internalType":"bytes4","name":"sig","type":"bytes4"},{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"usr","type":"address"},{"indexed":true,"internalType":"bytes32","name":"arg1","type":"bytes32"},{"indexed":true,"internalType":"bytes32","name":"arg2","type":"bytes32"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"bytes","name":"data","type":"bytes"}],"name":"LogNote","type":"event"},{"anonymous":false,"inputs":[{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"src","type":"address"},{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"dst","type":"address"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"Transfer","type":"event"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[],"name":"DOMAIN_SEPARATOR","outputs":[{"internalType":"bytes32","name":"","type":"bytes32"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[],"name":"PERMIT_TYPEHASH","outputs":[{"internalType":"bytes32","name":"","type":"bytes32"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"","type":"address"}],"name":"allowance","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"usr","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"approve","outputs":[{"internalType":"bool","name":"","type":"bool"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"","type":"address"}],"name":"balanceOf","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"usr","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"burn","outputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[],"name":"decimals","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint8","name":"","type":"uint8"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"guy","type":"address"}],"name":"deny","outputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"usr","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"mint","outputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"src","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"dst","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"move","outputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[],"name":"name","outputs":[{"internalType":"string","name":"","type":"string"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"","type":"address"}],"name":"nonces","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"holder","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"spender","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"nonce","type":"uint256"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"expiry","type":"uint256"},{"internalType":"bool","name":"allowed","type":"bool"},{"internalType":"uint8","name":"v","type":"uint8"},{"internalType":"bytes32","name":"r","type":"bytes32"},{"internalType":"bytes32","name":"s","type":"bytes32"}],"name":"permit","outputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"usr","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"pull","outputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"usr","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"push","outputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"guy","type":"address"}],"name":"rely","outputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[],"name":"symbol","outputs":[{"internalType":"string","name":"","type":"string"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[],"name":"totalSupply","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"dst","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"transfer","outputs":[{"internalType":"bool","name":"","type":"bool"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"src","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"dst","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"transferFrom","outputs":[{"internalType":"bool","name":"","type":"bool"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[],"name":"version","outputs":[{"internalType":"string","name":"","type":"string"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"","type":"address"}],"name":"wards","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"}]'

# The contract object
contract = w3.eth.contract(address=contract_address, abi=abi)

# The raw call data to be decoded
data = "0xa9059cbb0000000000000000000000003f5047bdb647dc39c88625e17bdbffee905a9f4400000000000000000000000000000000000000000000011c9a62d04ed0c80000"

# Decode the call data
decoded_data = contract.decode_function_input(data)

# Print the decoded call data
print(decoded_data)

The result will look like this:

(<Function transfer(address,uint256)>, {'dst': '0x3F5047BDb647Dc39C88625E17BDBffee905A9F44', 'wad': 5250000000000000000000})

Pat yourself on the back because you already learned the hard part of understanding transaction calldata on Ethereum! The next section will cover how to encode calldata.

Encoding Calldata with Python

Referencing the same transaction contract, we can encode the transfer function and its payload with the following Python code:

from web3 import Web3

# The RPC url
w3 = Web3(Web3.HTTPProvider("QUICKNODE_ETHEREUM_ENDPOINT"))

# ABI of the function to be called
abi = '[{"inputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"chainId_","type":"uint256"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"constructor"},{"anonymous":false,"inputs":[{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"src","type":"address"},{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"guy","type":"address"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"Approval","type":"event"},{"anonymous":true,"inputs":[{"indexed":true,"internalType":"bytes4","name":"sig","type":"bytes4"},{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"usr","type":"address"},{"indexed":true,"internalType":"bytes32","name":"arg1","type":"bytes32"},{"indexed":true,"internalType":"bytes32","name":"arg2","type":"bytes32"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"bytes","name":"data","type":"bytes"}],"name":"LogNote","type":"event"},{"anonymous":false,"inputs":[{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"src","type":"address"},{"indexed":true,"internalType":"address","name":"dst","type":"address"},{"indexed":false,"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"Transfer","type":"event"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[],"name":"DOMAIN_SEPARATOR","outputs":[{"internalType":"bytes32","name":"","type":"bytes32"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[],"name":"PERMIT_TYPEHASH","outputs":[{"internalType":"bytes32","name":"","type":"bytes32"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"","type":"address"}],"name":"allowance","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"usr","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"approve","outputs":[{"internalType":"bool","name":"","type":"bool"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"","type":"address"}],"name":"balanceOf","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"usr","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"burn","outputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[],"name":"decimals","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint8","name":"","type":"uint8"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"guy","type":"address"}],"name":"deny","outputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"usr","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"mint","outputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"src","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"dst","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"move","outputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[],"name":"name","outputs":[{"internalType":"string","name":"","type":"string"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"","type":"address"}],"name":"nonces","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"holder","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"spender","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"nonce","type":"uint256"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"expiry","type":"uint256"},{"internalType":"bool","name":"allowed","type":"bool"},{"internalType":"uint8","name":"v","type":"uint8"},{"internalType":"bytes32","name":"r","type":"bytes32"},{"internalType":"bytes32","name":"s","type":"bytes32"}],"name":"permit","outputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"usr","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"pull","outputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"usr","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"push","outputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"guy","type":"address"}],"name":"rely","outputs":[],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[],"name":"symbol","outputs":[{"internalType":"string","name":"","type":"string"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[],"name":"totalSupply","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"dst","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"transfer","outputs":[{"internalType":"bool","name":"","type":"bool"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":false,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"src","type":"address"},{"internalType":"address","name":"dst","type":"address"},{"internalType":"uint256","name":"wad","type":"uint256"}],"name":"transferFrom","outputs":[{"internalType":"bool","name":"","type":"bool"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"nonpayable","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[],"name":"version","outputs":[{"internalType":"string","name":"","type":"string"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"},{"constant":true,"inputs":[{"internalType":"address","name":"","type":"address"}],"name":"wards","outputs":[{"internalType":"uint256","name":"","type":"uint256"}],"payable":false,"stateMutability":"view","type":"function"}]'

# The contract address
contract_address = '0x6B175474E89094C44Da98b954EedeAC495271d0F'

# The contract object
contract = w3.eth.contract(address=contract_address, abi=abi)

# Encode function call
function_name = 'transfer'
args = ["0x3f5047bdb647dc39c88625e17bdbffee905a9f44", 5250000000000000000000]
encoded_data = contract.encodeABI(fn_name=function_name, args=args)

# Print encoded data
print(encoded_data)

The result will look like the original transaction calldata included in the referenced transaction.

Conclusion

That's it! You know now how to understand transaction calldata on Ethereum and how to use Python to encode and decode transactions easily. Check out some other Ethereum Development and Smart Contract Development guides.

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